Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the hip, also known as osteonecrosis, is a condition characterized by the death of bone tissue due to a lack of blood supply. Although it can damage any bone, hip joints are the most frequently affected. An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 new instances of AVN are reported in the US each year; these occurrences can affect people of any age, however the most prevalent age at diagnosis is between 30 and 65.

Causes and Risk Factors

Many illnesses, such as sickle cell disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Gaucher disease, as well as prolonged use of high-dose corticosteroids and excessive alcohol consumption, can cause acute ventilator-associated pneumonia (AVN). Additional risk factors include organ transplantation, decompression sickness, HIV infection, pancreatitis, chronic liver disease, smoking, prior radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hyperlipidemia, gout, and COVID-19. The precise cause of AVN is frequently still unknown.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

Hip AVN in its early stages might not show any symptoms. But when the illness worsens, people usually feel discomfort in their buttocks, knee, thigh, hip, and/or groin. The afflicted hip’s range of motion may also be restricted, and the pain typically worsens with time. To identify the underlying cause of AVN, the diagnosis process includes a physical examination, imaging tests including MRIs, CT scans, and X-rays, and occasionally blood work.

Options for Treatment

The patient’s age, general health, symptoms, and whether or not the femoral head has collapsed all affect how AVN of the hip is treated. While rest, physical therapy, and medication are examples of non-surgical treatment options that can help manage symptoms, they often do not stop the progression of AVN. Core decompression, grafting, contouring (osteotomy), joint replacement, and regenerative medicine procedures like concentration and aspiration of bone marrow are among the surgical alternatives. The chosen course of action seeks to stop more bone loss, reduce discomfort, and improve hip function.


The prognosis for people with AVN of the hip varies based on a number of variables, such as the aetiology of the illness, the extent of the disease at the time of initial treatment, the area of the femoral head that is affected, the patient’s age, and overall health. When AVN is treated early in its course, healthy persons usually have the best results.

Hip avascular necrosis is a dangerous ailment that, if left untreated, can cause excruciating pain and severe disability. Improving results and maintaining hip function require an early diagnosis and adequate therapy. Those who are at risk or exhibiting AVN symptoms ought to consult a physician in order to guarantee prompt and suitable treatment.